A true gentlemen is one who is never unintentionally rude. Oscar Wilde
Emotions are important for cognitive processes, decision-making, guiding actions and controlling resources. They play an important role in human-machine interaction since people tend to tread technology as social actors. It is impossible to not communicate emotions, since absence of affect in communication may be perceived as not caring. It is therefore necessary to carefully design the affective communication between humans and artifacts.The interaction cycle consists of first sensing the environment including the affective state of the user. Next, the artifact needs to reason about its own affective state before it can express it and adjust its behavior accordingly. Evaluating the artifact’s affective system is crucial to guarantee successful communication.
- The Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database
- Paul Ekman
- Aibo Software Developer Environment
- Aibo Programming Guide by Ricardo Tellez
- URBI – Universal Robotic Body Interface
- Skitter – AIBO Performance Editor
- iCat Community
- Wild Divine Biofeedback
- The Expression of the Emotions – Charles Darwin
- Design and Emotions Society
- International Association of Empirical Aesthetics
- Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
You can now also download the following movies for the class:
- Obedience, by Stanley Milgram
- AI (section), by Steven Spielberg
- The century of the self (Part 1), by BBC4
Cats and Dogs
by Bartneck, Berg, Compen, Wessel, Groenendaal
An Image Divine
The reader for this module is now available. Please download it: Affective Design Reader
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- Bondarev, A. (2002). Design of an emotion management system for a home robot. Unpublished Master, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven.
- Damasio, A. R. (2000). Descartes’ error : Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Quill.
- Desmet, P. (2002). Designing emotions. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, TU Delft, Delft.
- Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Ellsworth, P. (1972). Emotion in the human face : Guidelines for research and an integration of findings. New York: Pergamon Press.
- Elliott, C. D. (1992). The affective reasoner: A process model of emotions in a multi-agent system. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, The Institute for the Learning Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
- Etcoff, N. L., & Magee, J. J. (1992). Categorical perception of facial expressions. Cognition, 44, 227-240.
- Fong, T., Nourbakhsh, I., & Dautenhahn, K. (2003). A survey of socially interactive robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 42, 143-166.
- Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Hollnagel, E. (1999, 1999). Keep cool: The value of affective computer interfaces in a rational world. Paper presented at the HCI International ’99, Munich.
- O’Reilly, W. S. N. (1996). Believable social and emotional agents. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.
- Ortony, A. (2003). On making believable emotional agents believable. In R. P. Trapple, P. (Ed.), Emotions in humans and artefacts. Cambridge: MIT Press.
- Ortony, A., Clore, G., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Picard, R. W. (1997). Affective computing. Cambridge: MIT Press.
- Rizzo, P. (1999, 1999). Emotional agents for user entertainment: Discussing the underlying assumptions. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Affect in Interactions held in conjuction with the AC’99, Annual Conference of the EC I3 Programme, Siena.
- Schiano, D. J. (2004). Categorical imperative not: Facial affect is perceived continously. Paper presented at the CHI2004, Vienna.
- Schwartz, M. S., & Andrasik, F. (2003). Biofeedback, third edition: A practitioner’s guide New York: The Guilford Press.
- Trappl, R., Petta, P., & Payr, S. (2003). Emotions in humans and artifacts. Cambridge: MIT Press.
- Wehrle, T. (1998). Motivations behind modeling emotional agents: Whose emotion does your robot have? In C. Numaoka, L. D. Cañamero & P. Petta (Eds.), Grounding emotions in adaptive systems. Zurich: 5th International Conference of the Society for Adaptive Behavior Workshop Notes (SAB’98).