LEGO Brick Dimensions and Measurements

The LEGO bricks are precisely designed to fit perfectly together. There is a 0.2mm gap between bricks next to each other. The gap between two bricks stacked on top of each depends on how careful to pressed them down. Of course there are several websites that show you the exact measurements, but some of them were a bit confusing or even broken.

LEGO 2×4 Brick (3001)

I enjoy working in 3D so I used Fusion 360 to create this technical drawing of the LEGO Brick. You can download the model over at GrabCAD and the PDF file from here.


LEGO 2×4 Plate (3020)

This plate is 1/3 of the height of a normal brick. You can download the model at GrabCAD and the the PDF file from here.


LEGO 1×4 Technic Brick (3701)

The technic bricks have a hole in the side for pin connectors or axles to go through. I had to cut open a brick to get the exact design of the inside tubes right. The model is available at GrabCAD and the PDF file from here.


How religious is Christchurch?

While driving around Christchurch I noticed a church on almost every corner. The name of the city could have already given me that hint, but it is better to check the facts first before jumping to conclusions. Christchurch was named after the Christ Church College at Oxford University.

There does not seem to be any register for churches in New Zealand and hence I searched the Charities Register for charities that provide religious services. The results contain more than 7000 charities, but many of them are no longer registered and/or have stopped operation. After some cleaning of the data I was left with 5590 records for New Zealand. It is important to note that not every religious charity is a church and not all churches are registered as a charity. One charity could also operate several churches. But for what it is worth, this approach does seem like a good approximation. The various Anglican parishes, for example, are listed individually.

Mapping these religious charities on a map would be slightly misleading since bigger cities will naturally have a higher number of charities. To create a density map of the religious charities in New Zealand I had to take the population distribution into account.

InfoShare from StatsNZ allows you to download the download the Estimated Resident Population for Urban Areas. It contains population estimates for many of New Zealand’s cities. Unfortunately, this list does not contain all the small cities, such as Akaroa.

After cross referencing the charities with the population information I created this density map of religious charities in New Zealand. Christchurch has 517 registered religious charities and a population of 404,600 in 2018 which results in 0.0012 people per charity. This puts Christchurch in the lower half.

You can have a look at the full visualization over at Tableau Public where you can also download the source data.

Click on the image to go to the full interactive graph.

Negative Attitudes Towards Robots Scale (NARS) Translations

The translations of the NARS questionnaire.

Several people asked about translations to the original NARS questionnaire. I finally got around to put them together below. The questionnaire was used in our paper:

Bartneck, C., Nomura, T., Kanda, T., Suzuki, T., & Kennsuke, K. (2005). A cross-cultural study on attitudes towards robots. Proceedings of the HCI International, Las Vegas.



  1. もしロボットが本当に感情を持ったら不安だ。
  2. ロボットが生き物に近づくと、人間にとってよくないことがありそうな気がする。
  3. ロボットと会話すると、とてもリラックスできるだろう。
  4. 就職してロボットを利用するような職場にまわされるかもしれないと考えると、不安になる。
  5. ロボットが感情を持ったら、親しくなれるだろう。
  6. 感情的な動きをするロボットを見ると、気分がいやされる。
  7. ロボットと聞いただけで、もうお手上げの気持ちだ。
  8. 人が見ている前でロボットを利用すると、恥をかきそうだ。
  9. 人工知能とか、ロボットによる判断といった言葉を聞くと不愉快になる。
  10. 私は、ロボットの前に立っただけで、とても緊張してしまうだろう。
  11. ロボットに頼りすぎると、将来、何か良くないことが起こりそうな気がする。
  12. ロボットと会話をすると、とても神経過敏になるだろう。
  13. ロボットが子供の心に悪い影響を与えないか心配だ。
  14. これからの社会は、ロボットによって支配されてしまいそうな気がする。


Ihnen werden im Folgenden 14 Aussagen präsentiert, die Ihre Einstellung zu Robotern beschreibt. Bitte beurteilen Sie diese Sätze auf einer Skala von “Ich stimme vollständig zu” bis “Ich stimme nicht zu”. Es gibt keine richtige oder falsche Antwort, antworten Sie bitte spontan nach Ihrem ersten Eindruck.

  1. Ich würde mich unwohl fühlen, wenn Roboter wirkliche Gefühle hätten.
  2. Etwas Schlimmes könnte passieren, wenn sich Roboter in lebendige Wesen entwickeln würden.
  3. Ich würde mich entspannt fühlen ,wenn ich mit einem Roboter spräche.
  4. Ich würde mich unwohl fühlen, wenn ich einen Arbeitsplatz bekäme, an dem ich mit Robotern zusammenarbeiten müsste.
  5. Wenn Roboter Gefühle hätten, könnte ich mit Ihnen anfreunden.
  6. Ich fühle mich in Gegenwart von Robotern umsorgt.
  7. Das Wort “Roboter” hat keine Bedeutung für mich.
  8. Es würde mich nervös machen einen Roboter in Gegenwart von anderen zu bedienen.
  9. Ich würde es hassen wenn Roboter oder Künstliche Intelligenz Dinge beurteilen würden.
  10. Ich wäre bereits sehr nervös, wenn ich einfach nur vor einem Roboter stände.
  11. Ich glaube dass etwas Schlimmes passieren könnte, wenn ich zu sehr von Robotern abhängig wäre.
  12. Ich würde mich paranoid fühlen, wenn ich mit einem Roboter spräche.
  13. Ich bin besorgt, dass Roboter einen schlechten Einfluss auf Kinder haben könnten.
  14. Ich glaube, dass unsere Gesellschaft in Zukunft von Robotern dominiert wird.


In the following 14 sentences (statements) are presented to you, which describe your attitude towards robots. Please judge these sentences on scale from “I agree completely” to “I completely disagree”. There are no right or wrong answers, please answer spontaneously upon your first impression.

  1. I feel uneasy if a robot really has an emotion.
  2. Something horrible would happen, if a robot would evolve into living beings.
  3. I will be able to relax while talking to a robot.
  4. I would feel uncomfortable, coming to a working space, which would require me to work with a robot.
  5. If robots had feelings, I could become friends with them.
  6. I feel cared for in the presence of robots.
  7. The word “robot” does not have a meaning for me.
  8. I would feel nervous operating a robot in the presence of others.
  9. I would hate it, if robots or articial intelligence would judge things.
  10. I would already be nervous, just standing in front of a robots.
  11. I believe that something bad could happen, if I would be too dependent on robots
  12. I would feel paranoid, if I would talk to a computer
  13. I am worried, that robots could have a bad influence on my children.
  14. I believe, that our society will be dominated by robots in the future.



  1. 面对一个真的有情感的机器人,我会觉得不自在。
  2. 如果机器人进化成有生命的生物,后果可能不妙。
  3. 和机器人交谈我会觉得很放松。
  4. 如果我必须使用机器人来完成给定的工作,我会觉得不自在。
  5. 如果机器人有情感, 我会和它们交朋友。
  6. 和有情感的机器人在一起我会觉得很轻松自在。
  7. “机器人”这个词本身对我来说就涵义不清。
  8. 在别人面前操作机器人我会觉得紧张。
  9. 我讨厌由机器人或者人工智能对事物进行判断的想法。
  10. 仅仅站在机器人的跟前就会让我很紧张。
  11. 我觉得如果我过分依赖机器人,后果可能不妙。
  12. 和机器人交谈我觉得有些神经。
  13. 我担心机器人会对小孩有不好的影响。
  14. 我觉得可能将来的社会会被机器人所控制。


La feuille ci-après décrit 14 attitudes susceptibles d’être ressenties
par un être humain au contact d’un robot. Pour chaque attitude, veuillez choisir l’appréciation qui vous convient le plus: l’échelle va de ‘Totalement d’accord’ à ‘Je ne suis pas du tout d’accord’ Il n’y a pas de fausse réponse, veuillez seulement donner votre première impression, sans trop vous attarder sur chaque question.

  1. Cela me gênerait si les robots pouvaient avoir des émotions
  2. Si les robots devenaient des êtres vivants à part entière, cela pourrait avoir de graves conséquence
  3. Je me sentirais à l’aise en discutant avec un robot
  4. J’accepterais difficilement de travailler dans un environnement où j’aurais à coopérer avec des robots
  5. Si les robots pouvaient avoir des émotions, je pourrais nouer des relations amicales avec eux.
  6. Je pourrais être réconforté(e) par un robot ayant des émotions.
  7. Le mot robot ne représente rien à mes yeux
  8. L’idée de manipuler un robot devant d’autres personnes me rend nerveux(se)
  9. Je ne supporterais pas qu’un robot ou une intelligence artificielle puisse émettre un quelconque jugement.
  10. La simple idée de me retrouver face à robot me rend nerveux(se)
  11. J’ai l’impression qu’il pourrait m’arriver quelque chose de grave si je devenais trop dépendant des robots.
  12. Parler avec un robot me rendrait paranoïde.
  13. Je suis préoccupé par la mauvaise influence que pourraient avoir les robots sur les enfants.
  14. Je pense que la société de demain sera dominée par les robots.


A continuación Usted leerá 14 frases que describen actitudes frente a robots. Por favor, juzgue las frases dentro del rango “Completamente de acuerdo” a “Completamente en desacuerdo”. Ninguna respuesta es incorrecta, por lo que se le pide entregar su primera impresión lo más immediato posible.

  1. Me sentiría incómodo(a) si los robots tuvieran emociones.
  2. Algo malo podría ocurrir si los robots se convirtieran en seres vivientes.
  3. Me sentiría tranquilo(a) conversando con robots.
  4. Me sentiría incómodo(a) si obtengo un trabajo donde tuviera que usar robots.
  5. Si los robots tuvieran emociones yo podría hacer amistad con ellos.
  6. Es reconfortante el compartir con robots que tienen emociones.
  7. La palabra “robot” no significa nada para mí.
  8. Me sentiría nervioso(a) tener que manejar un robot en frente a otras personas.
  9. Odiaría la idea de que robots e inteligencia artificial realizaran juicios acerca de cosas.
  10. Me sentiría muy nervioso(a) con el sólo hecho de estar en frente a un robot.
  11. Siento que si dependo mucho de los robots algo malo podría ocurrir.
  12. Me sentiría paranoico(a) hablando con un robot.
  13. Estoy conciente que los robots podrían ejercer una mala influencia en los niños.
  14. Siento que nuestra sociedad en el futuro va a estar dominada por robots.

Exposure bracketing and rendering in AutoPano Pro

Taking 360 degrees panoramic photographs has become easy due to the arrival of dedicated 360 cameras, such as the Ricoh Theta V. But their 4K resolution is spread thin across the whole 360 degree viewing angle. There is still a need to panoramas with high resolution that can only be taken by stitching multiple photographs together. The GigaPan Epic Pro is a robotic camera head that tilts and pans your camera before triggering the shot. You can stitch hundreds even thousands of photos together into one GigaPixel panorama. I have uploaded a few on GigaPan’s website.

One problem when shooting GigaPixel panoramas is that some parts of your panorama will be very light due to the sun shining directly on them while other areas might be very dark, for example by simply being in the shadow. Finding a compromise exposure for your camera might be difficult and hence we are using bracketing to shoot multiple photos of the same area. Each of these photos will be several exposures apart from the others. For any shot you will have in fact three shots, each with a low, medium and high exposure. When you stitch the panorama together in AutoPano Giga, for example, you can use all three exposures. Autopano has several modes to select the best exposed pixel.

There are two settings that you can play with that will heavily influence how your final panorama will look like. You can set the Color Mode to None, Auto and HDR.

You can also set the Blending Presets to Simple, Anti Ghosting, Exposure Fusion and HDR Output.

I systematically varied these two settings to get an impression on what results the may produce. Continue reading “Exposure bracketing and rendering in AutoPano Pro”

Every edition of Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance and Lila: an inquiry into morals

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance is arguably the most widely read philosophy book of all times. Since its first release in 1974 it has been printed by many publishers. Here is a list of all the editions that I could find. Rest in peace, Robert.

William Morrow and Company19749780688002305Original Publication
The Bodley Head Ltd1974 9780370103389
Bantam Doubleday Dell19769780552101660
Quill William Morrow19799780688052300
Bantam Books19809780553138757
Bantam Books19819780553277470
Bantam Books19829780553207088
Bantam Books19849780553257489
William Morrow and Company198410th Anniversary Edition Limited to 1000
Corgi19899780552993784Black Swan Edition
Vintage Publishing19919780099786405Random House, Printed by Clays Ltd.
Vintage Publishing19919780099786405Random House, Printed by Cox & Wyman Ltd.
William Morrow and Company19999780688002305978119950347325th Anniversary Edition
Easton Press2001Collectors Edition
William Morrow and Company20059780060839871Also from Harper Collins
Perfection Learning20059780756902407
Harper Torch20069780060589462
Vintage Publishing2006978009932261025th Anniversary Edition
William Morrow and Company200897800620089309780061673733
Vintage Publishing2011978009959816940th Anniversary Edition

The situation for “Lila: an inquiry into morals” is a little bit easier although this is the more important work.

Bantam Press19919780593025079
Bantam Press19919780553077377
Bantam Press19929780552995047Black Swan Edition
Bantam Press19929780553299618
Bantam Press19929780553180978
Alma Books20119781846881541